The dialogue with these questions is repeated, and then, from measure 30, Chorus I sings the text of the incipit again while in ripieno sopranos sing the first two lines of Nikolaus Decius' chorale "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig" (O Lamb of God, innocent) as the cantus firmus. The request was only partially granted by the Town Council,[7] so possibly at least some of the Passion presentations in St. Thomas were with fewer than twenty singers, even for the large scale works, like the St Matthew Passion, that were written for double choir. 55) Simon of Cyrene is forced to carry the cross. Voice-leading and instrumental notation altered; Most extensive revision in voice-leading and instrumental notation. In many arias a solo instrument or more create a specific mood, such as the central soprano aria No. This theme is reinforced by the concluding chorale of the first part, O Mensch, bewein dein' Sünde groß (O man, bewail your great sin). The presenter and explicator was Leonard Bernstein, who introduced the St Matthew Passion as "that glorious work that started me off on my own private passion for Bach."[33]. "Jesu, der du warest tot, lebest nun ohn' Ende" (Jesus, you who suffered death, now live forever)[8] is the final stanza of Stockmann's hymn (14). Listen to Schütz: St. Matthew Passion by Dieter Kurz & Stuttgart Opera Choir on Apple Music. – meaning: Am I the one going to betray? Once the fuller group of singers and the orchestra were brought in, Devrient recalled, participants were amazed at "the abundance of melodies, the rich expression of emotion, the passion, the singular style of declamation, and the force of the dramatic action. – See the endurance) and ultimately Seht — Wohin? One is the double-choir format, which stems from his own double-choir motets and those of many other composers with which he routinely started Sunday services. "Christus, der uns selig macht" (Christ, who has made us blessed),[8] stanza 1 of Michael Weiße's 1531 hymn, summarizes what Jesus has to endure, even though he is innocent ("made captive, ... falsely indicted, and mocked and scorned and bespat"). The St Matthew Passion was probably first performed on 11 April (Good Friday) 1727 in the St. Thomas Church, and again on 15 April 1729, 30 March 1736, and 23 March 1742. In the 1727/1729 version, this part is concluded by a four-part setting of verse 6 of the Chorale "Meinen Jesum laß ich nicht (Jesum laß ich nicht von mir)". The structure of the St John Passion (German: Johannes-Passion), BWV 245, a sacred oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach, is "carefully designed with a great deal of musico-theological intent". Preceding this, Jesus is greeted in mockery as a king, corresponding in motif to the later request that Pilate should change the inscription saying he is "the King of the Jews" to "He said: I am the King of the Jews".[9]. In 1730, Bach informed the Leipzig Town Council as to what he saw as the number of singers that should be available for the churches under his responsibility, including those for the St. Thomas Church: a choir of twelve singers, plus eight singers that would serve both St. Thomas and the Peterskirche. Part I ends with a chorale fantasia that is based on the opening chorus of the St John Passion in its second version, also performed by both choirs in unison, whereas the opening chorus is for double … Zelter had a supply of J. S. Bach scores and was an admirer of Bach's music but he was reluctant to undertake public performances. In a dramatic highpoint of the Passion,[17][18] the chorus (No. He was, by now, working as a … Stream songs including "St. Matthew Passion… and Chorus II promptly asks Wen? — to our guilt), after which Chorus I and II sing the last lines of Picander's text in separate blocks. Two distinctive aspects of Bach's setting spring from his other church endeavors. 17 has three flats (E-flat major), No. "[14] In 1749, Bach performed the St John Passion once more, in an expanded and altered form from the 1724 version, in what would be his last performance of a Passion. Bach's recitatives often set the mood for the particular passages by highlighting emotionally charged words such as "crucify", "kill", or "mourn" with chromatic melodies. The St Matthew Passion is the second of two Passion settings by Bach that have survived in their entirety, the first being the St John Passion, first performed in 1724. 2), on the other hand the intention to get rid of him is expressed (No. 19), two oboes, in certain movements instead oboe d'amore or oboe da caccia, two violins, viola, viola da gamba, and basso continuo. Stream songs including "St. Matthew Passion… 65, "Mache dich, mein Herze, rein", offers to bury Jesus himself. 12c ends with "und alsobald krähete der Hahn" in B minor. The words of Jesus, also termed Vox Christi (voice of Christ), usually receive special treatment. Bach first performed it in 1724 and revised it in 1725, 1732, and 1749, adding several numbers. " Chorale: first stanza of Johann Heermann's "Herzliebster Jesu". Both include two transverse flutes (Choir 1 also includes 2 recorders for No. The St Matthew Passion was composed as to perform a single work from both organ lofts at the same time: Chorus and orchestra I would occupy the large organ loft, and Chorus and orchestra II performed … ", In the arias, obbligato instruments are equal partners with the voices, as was customary in late Baroque arias. Stream songs including "St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244: No. Bach worked together with his librettist, Christian Friedrich Henrici, known as Picander[4] who published the text of the libretto of the St Matthew Passion in 1729. Part Two uses Matthew 26:57–75 and Matthew 27:1–66. Because Bach never intended the St. Matthew Passion to be "easy listening". Here at last was a St Matthew Passion that was compatible with the 140 voices of Mendelssohn Club of Philadelphia. [11] Before, it had been part of his Weimarer Passion of 1717. They are sung by soloists with a variety of instrumental accompaniments, typical of the oratorio style. Matthew Passion' : Deceptive Cadence Join tenor Ian Bostridge, conductor Ton Koopman and other singers, conductors and scholars for a guided tour of … The St Matthew Passion has been presented in staged performances. The "immediate, dramatic quality" of the "kind of musical equivalent of the Passion Play" relies on the setting of the interaction between the historical persons (Jesus, Pilate, Peter, Maid, Servant) and the crowd ("soldiers, priests, and populace").[2]. [8][clarification needed], The second chorale, movement 5, ends the first scene, after Jesus remarks that he has to be obedient. I am working with a group that is promoting … [citation needed], The arias, set to texts by Picander, are interspersed between sections of the Gospel text. [24] He had been hired to teach music theory to both Felix Mendelssohn and his sister Fanny. 30). At Golgatha (No. 27a) Jesus's arrest, the chorus make angry interjections (Laßt ihn, haltet, bindet nicht!). Listen to Bach: St. Matthew Passion by Peter Schreier, Rundfunkchor Leipzig & Staatskapelle Dresden on Apple Music. "Weissage uns, Christe") and sometimes sing together ("Herr, wir haben gedacht"). There are no extant Flute parts for this version, so the movements that normally require them have violins instead. In the early version BWV 244b the chorale No. Jesus recitative now accompanied by flowing Continuo part rather than chordal. As in other Passion oratorios the backbone of the structure is the narration of the Gospel, in this case chapters 26 and 27 of the Gospel of Matthew in the German translation of the Luther Bible. This is the version (with some possible later adjustments) that is generally known as the St Matthew Passion, BWV 244. Pilate interrogates Jesus (No. Like other Baroque oratorio passions, Bach's setting presents the Biblical text of Matthew 26–27 in a relatively simple way, primarily using recitative, while aria and arioso movements set newly written poetic texts which comment on the various events in the Biblical narrative and present the characters' states of mind in a lyrical, monologue-like manner. Betrayal, judgement and death, but above all love; although most of the words of the St Matthew Passion are almost 2000 years old, the message is still relevant today. The first chorale, movement 3, is inserted after Jesus tells the crowd to arrest him, but let his disciples go. Namely, the opening chorus from Bach’s St. Matthew Passion: “Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen” (Come, daughters, help me lament): Today’s Gospel reading is the Passion story according to St. Matthew: Matthew … In fact one can. In 1707 he married a second cousin, Maria Barbara, and had seven children. [15] The opening chorus, "Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen" is also notable for the use of chorale cantus firmus, in which the soprano in ripieno crowns a colossal buildup of polyphonic and harmonic tension, singing a verse of "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig". [8], Barthold Heinrich Brockes, etching by Christian Fritzsch (1744). [25], When Felix Mendelssohn was preparing his revival performance of the Passion in 1829 in Berlin (the first performance outside Leipzig), he cut out "ten arias (about a third of them), seven choruses (about half), [but] only a few of the chorales," which "emphasized the drama of the Passion story ... at the expense of the reflective and Italianate solo singing. In this version, Bach reverted to the original layout (thus discarding the previous revisions and additions). In the 1742 and 1743–1746 versions, a ripieno soprano choir was added to the soprano line. The music of the cantata consisted largely of music adapted from the St Matthew Passion. Picander wrote text for recitatives and arias, and for the large scale choral movements that open and close the Passion. Jesus is silent to this, but his answer to the question if he is the Son of God is considered a sacrilege calling for his death. He wasn't even interested in a string of hits – which the work undeniably is. He also dispensed with the Lute and the Viola d'amore, replacing them with an Organ and Violini con sordino. It is surrounded by two choral movements, which not only both ask for the crucifixion of Jesus, but also use the same musical motifs, the second time intensified. I found your Website because of the enthusiastic comments of Robert Murphy who will be participating in the Bach Festival 2000 St. Matthew Passion chorus. Both use lettered subsections in some cases. It was performed in 1749 and (most likely) repeated in 1750. When the cantus firmus has died out, Chorus I and II return to the first three lines of the text, from measure 82 until the conclusion of the chorus in measure 90. The St Matthew Passion tells the story … [16] In personal reflection, the speaker sees the contrast of his pleasure in the world and the suffering of Jesus, ending in a short "Und du mußt leiden" (And you must suffer). The Passion was performed under the Cantor of St. Thomas until about 1800. While soprano and alto mourn (in duet, No. (My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? This is listed as BC 2b. Rifkin, Joshua (1982). Bach's Passion of Our Lord … Part Two is opened by a dialog between the alto soloist deploring her lost Jesus and choir II offering help in searching for him, quoting Song of Songs 6:1 (Wo ist denn dein Freund hingegangen). In "Erbarm es, Gott", the relentless dotted rhythm of the diminished chords evoke the emotional shock of the scourging.[16]. Listen to Bach: St. Matthew Passion, Vol. [27] One of the group was Eduard Devrient, a baritone and since 1820 one of the principal singers at the Berlin Royal Opera. Mendelssohn's revival brought the music of Bach, particularly the large-scale works, to public and scholarly attention (although the St John Passion had been rehearsed by the Singakademie in 1822). He used three alternative arias, one of them with a chorale sung by the choir, and replaced the two closing movements, the chorus Ruht wohl and the chorale Ach Herr, laß dein lieb Engelein with the chorale fantasia on "Christe, du Lamm Gottes" (Christ, you Lamb of God),[11] the German Agnus Dei, published in Braunschweig in 1528. Only his final words, in Aramaic, Eli, Eli lama asabthani? In version 3, after Bach wrote his St Matthew Passion, he returned the opening chorus Herr, unser Herrscher and the final chorus Ruht wohl to their … a soprano voice sings the words spoken by Pontius Pilate's wife), except for: Apart from the Evangelist and the Vox Christi the dramatis personae of these Gospel sections of the St Matthew Passion consists of: In between the sections or scenes of the Gospel text, other texts are sung as a meditation or underlining the action, in a variety of formats: In the scheme below indentation indicates the type of movement: 1. 56, "Yes, of course this flesh and blood in us / want to be forced to the cross; / the better it is for our soul, / the more bitter it feels.". [4], Bach incorporated two short interpolations from the Gospel of Matthew (in Version I, one from Matthew and one from the Gospel of Mark), Matthew 26:75 after John 18:27, describing the weeping of Peter, and Matthew 27:51–52 after John 19:30, describing the tearing of the temple curtain (in Version I, this was replaced by Mark 15:38). [20] This also marks the completion of Bach's gradual emptying out of the key signature in subsequent settings of this tune: No. 58) Jesus and two others are crucified and mocked by the crowd. St. Matthew describes the tearing of the Temple curtain and an earthquake – set to music by Bach. ("Rest gently, gently rest! [8] Bach took this movement from his cantata Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, BWV 23, which had been an audition piece for his post in Leipzig. St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244, Pt. [13] A final, fifth version, revised between 1739 and 1749, was never performed in Bach's lifetime. Where he cites Psalm 22, "Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?" [5], Klagt, Kinder, klagt es aller Welt, BWV 244a, a cantata of which only the text is extant, was performed 24 March 1729 in Köthen at a memorial service held some months after the death of Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen. Zelter was reluctant but eventually gave his approval; that of the Singakademie board followed.[29]. In 1725 Christian Friedrich Henrici, a Leipzig poet who used Picander as his pen name, had published Erbauliche Gedanken auf den Grünen Donnerstag und Charfreytag ("Edifying Thoughts on Maundy Thursday and Good Friday"), containing free verse suitable for a Passion presentation in addition to the Gospel text. Bach added some instruments which were already old-fashioned at the time in arias for special effects, such as the archlute (Version I and 1739-1749 revision only, replaced by Organ and/or Harpsichord), the viola d'amore and the viola da gamba (Vg). The original Latin title Passio secundum Joannem translates to "Passion according to John". [13], The Bible text used for Part One is Matthew 26:1–56. Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen – O Lamm Gottes unschuldig (Chorus I & II – Cantus firmus by ripieno soprano choir), 29. Bach did not differentiate the vox Christi (voice of Christ), singing the words of Jesus, from the other bass recitatives and arias, nor the evangelist from the tenor arias. ), followed by the question Wie? Listen to Bach: St. Matthew's Passion (Highlights) by Franz Liszt Chamber Orchestra, Sandor Frigyes & Jeunesses Musicales Chorus on Apple Music. The interpolated texts theologically and personally interpret the Gospel texts. Voices appear in one of three columns, depending on the text source: Bible, contemporary poetic reflection, or chorale. (Wreck, ruin, engulf, shatter with sudden force the false betrayer, the murderous blood!). Other libretto sections came from publications by Salomo Franck and Barthold Heinrich Brockes.[14]. [3] Others, including Alfred Dürr, regard the scene as ending with the last comment by Pilate. Bach St Matthew Passion: Text, Translation and Musical Notes On the occasion of the centenary of the first performance of the St Matthew Passion in Aberdeen in 1912, Peter Parfitt, … [1][8], In Bach's time, St. Thomas Church had two organ lofts: the large organ loft that was used throughout the year for musicians performing in Sunday services, vespers, etc., and the small organ loft, situated at the opposite side of the former, that was used additionally in the grand services for Christmas and Easter. [28] Around December 1828 – January 1829 Devrient persuaded Felix that the two of them should approach Zelter to get the Sing-Akademie to support their project. And very successfully. Essentially a re-production of Version I with a few alterations (text changes in Movements 9, 19 & 20, instrumentation reflective of Version III). a maximum of what could be fitted in the organ lofts. But even by … 1, Chorus I/II: "Kommt, Ihr Töchter, Helft Mir Klagen"", "St. Matthew Bach: St Matthew Passion バッハ合唱団 、 デイヴィッド・ウィルコックス 、 アルフレーダ・ホジソン 0.0 Now 12c ends in Measure 31 and Movement 33 is eliminated altogether (replaced by a lost Sinfonia). Helen Johnston (a student at Queen's College, London) translated the libretto of the Passion, and Bennett conducted the first English performance at the Hanover Square Rooms London on 6 April 1854 (the same year that it appeared in print by the Old Bach Society (Alte Bach-Gesellschaft). After the meal they go together to the Mount of Olives (No. The corresponding movement numbers are given from the Neue Bach-Ausgabe (NBA). The St Matthew Passion was composed as to perform a single work from both organ lofts at the same time: Chorus and orchestra I would occupy the large organ loft, and Chorus and orchestra II performed from the small organ loft. The chorus sings, in the final chorale No. Following the concept of Anselm of Canterbury, the crucifixion is the endpoint and the source of redemption; the emphasis is on the suffering of Jesus. [1] Some main aspects of the structure are shown in tables below. The fourth chorale, movement 14, ends the second scene and Part I. In a great contrast of mood the preparation for the "Easter meal" (Osterlamm) is described (No. [2] A setting of the then-popular Brockes Passion libretto, largely consisting of such paraphrasing, could not be done without replacing the paraphrases by actual Gospel text. and Aria (with Chorus II: Ich will bei meinem Jesu wachen) for tenor, Aria for soprano and alto (with Chorus II: Laßt ihn, haltet, bindet nicht!) The gospel account by John narrates the story in five "scenes". He added five movements from his Weimarer Passion, with three texts now thought to be by Christoph Birkmann. [8][25], The eighth chorale, movement 28, is related to Jesus telling his mother and John to take care of each other. A number of passages for several speakers, called turba (crowd) parts, are sung by one of the two choirs or both. 62, "tear me from my fears / through your own fear and pain." Their first performance was effectively publicized in six consecutive issues of the Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, founded and edited by Adolf Bernhard Marx. Possibly Bach had an influence on their selection. The St Matthew Passion (German: Matthäus-Passion), BWV 244, is a Passion, a sacred oratorio written by Johann Sebastian Bach in 1727 for solo voices, double choir and double orchestra, with libretto by Picander. 49, "Aus Liebe will mein Heiland sterben", where the absence of strings and basso continuo mark a desperate loss of security. The size of the organ lofts limited the number of performers for each Choir. The chorus alternates between participating in the narrative and commenting on it. [8][20], The sixth chorale, movement 17, comments in two more stanzas from "Herzliebster Jesu" (3), after Jesus addresses the different people of his kingdom. The work displays a thoughtful symmetry. Staged productions of the Passion include Lindy Hume's 2005 production for the Perth International Arts Festival, restaged in 2013 for Opera Queensland with Leif Aruhn-Solén [sv], Sara Macliver, Tobias Cole; and Peter Sellars' 2010 production with the Berlin Philharmonic under Simon Rattle with Mark Padmore, Camilla Tilling, Magdalena Kožená, Topi Lehtipuu, Christian Gerhaher and Thomas Quasthoff. Bach often uses madrigalisms, as in "Buß und Reu", where the flutes start playing a raindrop-like staccato as the alto sings of drops of his tears falling. [11], In version 5 (never performed), possibly dating from as early 1739, Bach returned to the first version, but revised it thoroughly. Bach seems to have stimulated the poet to write more of such verse in order to come to a full-fledged libretto for a Passion presentation combined with the Passion text chapters 26 and 27 in the Gospel of St Matthew. Casino (1995 Film) "Matthaus Passion" chapters 26 and 27. 15 has four sharps (E major), No. ), Chorus I replying with den Bräutigam (the bridegroom – implying Christ). When J. S. Bach came to write his St. Matthew Passion in the 1720s, the Passion, as a musical form, had grown to allow orchestra, choirs, and non-scriptural choruses and arias. Choir I consists of a soprano in ripieno voice, a soprano solo, an alto solo, a tenor solo, SATB chorus, two traversos, two oboes, two oboes d'amore, two oboes da caccia, lute, strings (two violin sections, violas and cellos), and continuo (at least organ). Highly contented, there the eyes fall asleep." A Visitor's Guide To Bach's 'St. In the opening chorus of the St. Matthew Passion he does this by superimposing the German Agnus Dei – the chorale O Lamm Gottes Unschuldig (O Lamb of God, unspotted), sung by a … O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß ", a 1725 replacement for the opening chorus, found a new home in … In a third, on 18 April, Zelter conducted, and soon there were performances in Frankfurt (where a previously projected performance of the Passion had been upstaged by those in Berlin) and in Breslau and Stettin.[32]. Bach's St Matthew Passion: 1st chorus: Kommt, ihr Töchter Johann Sebastian Bach's St Matthew Passion was first performed on 11 April 1727 in St Thomas Church,Leipzig,Germany. It was compiled by an unknown author, who partly used existing text: from the Brockes Passion (Der für die Sünde der Welt Gemarterte und Sterbende Jesus, aus den IV Evangelisten, Hamburg, 1712 and 1715) by Barthold Heinrich Brockes, he copied the text for movements 7, 19, 20, 24, 32, 34, 35 (partly) and 39; he found movement 13 in Christian Weise's Der Grünen Jugend Nothwendige Gedanken (Leipzig, 1675) and took from Postel's Johannes-Passion (c. 1700) movements 19 (partly), 22 and 30. "Bach's Chorus: A Preliminary Report. Two stanzas from Paul Gerhardt's 1647 hymn "O Welt, sieh hier dein Leben" comment the scene, stanza 3, "Wer hat dich so geschlagen" (Who has you now so stricken),[8] and stanza 4, "Ich, ich und meine Sünden" (I, I and my transgressions),[8][18] highlighting the personal responsibility of the speaking sinner for the suffering of Jesus.

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