The area covered by Boston is about 48 square miles, and it has a population of about 673,000, the highest in the New England region, and one of the most populous cities in the US. [34], Located in the fertile Connecticut River Valley (or Pioneer Valley if you are just talking about the part in Massachusetts), surrounded by mountains, bluffs, and rolling hills in all cardinal directions, Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River, near its confluence with two major tributary rivers—the western Westfield River, which flows into the Connecticut opposite Springfield's South End Bridge; and the eastern Chicopee River, which flows into the Connecticut less than 0.5 mi (0.8 km) north of Springfield, in the city of Chicopee (which constituted one of Springfield's most populous neighborhoods until it separated and became an independent municipality in 1852). Classical music aficionados hold the progressive Springfield Symphony Orchestra in high esteem. Springfield—like many mid-size Northeastern cities, e.g., Hartford, Albany, and New Haven—from the 1950s to the 1970s, razed a significant number of historic commercial buildings in the name of urban renewal. For this reason in the early 20th century it was the largest producer in New England of commercially produced cakes and pastries, and among the largest in bread—with one 1926 estimate of 1.4 million loaves of bread and 14 million breakfast rolls produced in the city on a weekly basis. In addition to its nickname The City of Firsts, Springfield is known as The City of Homes for its attractive architecture, which differentiates it from most medium-size, Northeastern American cities. 73.0% of the population were over 18 years old, and 10.9% were over 65 years old; the median age was 32.2 years. In 2010,[71] the median household income was $35,236. It was a strategic city for several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Siege of Boston and the Boston Massacre. The mayor is former City Councilor Domenic Sarno, elected November 6, 2007, by a margin of 52.54% to 47.18% against incumbent Charles Ryan. Apathy is too simple a way of explaining why 78 percent of Springfield voters didn't make it to the polls in November", "Council Makes History, President Fenton Promises Busy Year ...—Western Mass Politics & Insight", "In Springfield, a Whitfield of Dreams Comes True Mid-term ...", https://web.archive.org/web/20150412010233/http://os.cqpress.com/citycrime/2010/City_crime_rate_2010-2011_hightolow.pdf, "State awards $4.48 million to school turnaround efforts in Springfield, Worcester", "Court Square Springfield, Mass. Tourism is a major contributor to the economy of Boston, with over 20 million domestic and international visitors spending billions of the US dollars each year. It is the seventh smallest of the U.S. states in terms of total area. In the Ridgewood Historic District, the 1950s-futurist Mulberry House (101 Mulberry Street), is now a condominium building that features some of the finest views of Springfield. In 2007 Mayor Charles V. Ryan and City Councilor Jose Tosado proposed a home-rule amendment that would expand the council to thirteen members adding four seats to the existing nine member at large system, but allocated between eight ward and five at large seats. The Quadrangle's five distinct collections include the first American-made planetarium, designed and built (1937) by Frank Korkosz; the Dr Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden; the largest collection of Chinese cloisonne outside of China; and the original casting of Augustus Saint Gaudens's most famous sculpture, Puritan. The PVTA operates nineteen bus routes from Union Station. My girlfriend (who went to school in another state) also remembers the capital of Massachusetts being Springfield. Aside from its rivers, Springfield's second most prominent topographical feature is the city's 735-acre (297 ha) Forest Park, designed by renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. Define capital of Massachusetts by Webster's Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of Computing, Legal Dictionary, Medical Dictionary, Dream Dictionary. 13 among its "New Gay American Cities", ahead of San Diego and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Springfield Union Station, originally opened in 1926 and re-opened in 2017, is served by five Amtrak intercity routes: the Vermonter, which runs from Washington, D.C. to St. Albans, Vermont; the Lake Shore Limited, which runs from Chicago to Boston; the Hartford Line, which runs from Springfield to New Haven; the Valley Flyer, which runs from New Haven to Greenfield; and the Northeast Regional, which runs from Springfield to D.C./Virginia. 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